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History of Computers from Generation to Generation

Computers today are devices that cannot be separated from everyday life. But did you know the history of computers in the beginning? In the early days of the outbreak, the computer was made not to help you complete various tasks, but rather as a calculating machine. This refers to the term “computing” which means counting, so that the computer means the person or tool used to count. With this understanding, the history of computers is very long, even in the days before Christ. Computer seeds can be found in earlyRead More

Lancasterian Education

The Lancasterian Monitorial System of Education Portrait of Joseph Lancaster Qui docet, discit He who teaches, learns Joseph Lancaster (1778-1838) led a movement to establish schools that used what he called the Monitorial System, sometimes called the “Lancasterian” or “Lancastrian” System, in which more advanced students taught less advanced ones,  enabling a small number of adult masters to educate large numbers of students at low cost in basic and often advanced skills. From about 1798 to 1830 it was highly influential, but was displaced by the “modern” system of groupingRead More


Coalition for Non-Partisan Redistricting 2900 W Anderson Ln C-200-322 Austin, TX 78757 512/299-5001 [email protected] Proposal for non-partisan congressional redistricting plans in Texas Petition in Intervention of Jon Roland in Perez v. Perry, the Texas redistricting case, September 6, 2011. Part 1. Part 2. Exhibit A — Plot of curves representing alternative maps and the Standard of Proof proposed. Order by U.S. District Court — August 4, 2006, adopting a redistricting proposal and ordering the election to be conducted according to it in those districts. Texas Election Code Section 204.021, according to which election isRead More


State Nullification of Federal Action An important way to seek constitutional compliance is to organize widespread civil refusal to comply with unlawful official actions. A precedent for this was the 1783 Pennsylvania Council of Censors, discussed by James Madison in Federalist #48. The objective is to avoid having to launch separate legislation for every usurpation, but to provide a process by which resistance may be mobilized quickly as usurpations occur. The items below concern doing this at the state level for federal actions. Proposal for a Federal Action Review Commission (Nullification Commission).Read More

Constitutional Amendments

Draft Amendments to U.S. Constitution This is a collection of draft amendments to the Constitution for the United States. These should be regarded as short position statements on constitutional construction. It is subject to frequent additions and revisions, so readers may want to revisit often. There are three groups of amendments: Clarifying, Remedial, and Substantive. The Clarifying are intended only to return legal practice to original understanding. The Remedial are intended to correct errors and omissions. The Substantive are intended to add some additional powers that many people might think the national governmentRead More